Angkor Wat, Phnom Penh, Cambodia/ 吴哥窟,金边,柬埔寨

Angkor Wat is a temple complex in Cambodia and one of the largest religious monuments in the world, on a site measuring 162.6 hectares (1,626,000 m2; 402 acres). Originally constructed as a Hindu temple dedicated to the god Vishnu for the Khmer Empire, it was gradually transformed into a Buddhist temple towards the end of the 12th century. It was built by the Khmer King Suryavarman II in the early 12th century in the capital of the Khmer Empire, as his state temple and eventual mausoleum. Breaking from the Shaiva tradition of previous kings, Angkor Wat was instead dedicated to Vishnu. As the best-preserved temple at the site, it is the only one to have remained a significant religious centre since its foundation. The temple is at the top of the high classical style of Khmer architecture. It has become a symbol of Cambodia,appearing on its national flag, and it is the country’s prime attraction for visitors.

Angkor Wat combines two basic plans of Khmer temple architecture: the temple-mountain and the later galleried temple. It is designed to represent Mount Meru, home of the devas in Hindu mythology: within a moat more than 5 kilometres long and an outer wall 3.6 kilometres long are three rectangular galleries, each raised above the next. At the centre of the temple stands a quincunx of towers. Unlike most Angkorian temples, Angkor Wat is oriented to the west; scholars are divided as to the significance of this. The temple is admired for the grandeur and harmony of the architecture, its extensive bas-reliefs, and for the numerous devatas adorning its walls.

吴哥窟是位于柬埔寨的一个寺庙群,且是世界上最大的宗教纪念建筑之一,总共162.6公顷(162万6千平方米,402英亩)。初始时,高棉帝国建造了这个印度教寺庙来敬拜维斯奴神,可在12世纪时逐渐转成佛教寺庙。它由高棉国王苏里亚曼二世在12世纪初期建造于高棉帝国首都,作为国家寺庙和最重陵墓。这个寺庙打破以往敬拜湿婆神的传统,用来恭敬维斯奴神。作为保存最好的一座寺庙,它是唯一一个自从建造以来就保存的重要宗教中心。它也是顶级经典风格的高棉建筑。它已成为柬埔寨的象征,出现在国旗上,也是国家最主要的旅游景点。

吴哥窟包含两个基本的高棉建筑部分:寺庙山和后来的画廊庙。它的设计代表梅鲁山,印度神话中德瓦神居住的地方:在5公里的护城河和3.6公里的外城墙中,由三个长方形的画廊,逐次加高。寺庙中心矗立着一个梅花塔。不同于吴哥城其他的寺庙,吴哥窟面朝西边,学者们纷纷表示出其意义的不同的意见。由于它的富丽堂皇和和谐,大面积的浮雕,点缀在墙上的众神像,吴哥窟倍受钦慕。

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